From the Same Starting Points to Moderate versus Radical Solutions. Hungarian Case Study on the Political Socialization of Young LMP and Jobbik Party Political Activists

  • Nora Anna Lantos Eötvös Loránd University
  • Anna Kende Eötvös Loránd University

Abstract

In line with the general tendency in post-communist societies, several waves of youth research reported the low interest in politics amongst young people in Hungary from late 1990s until 2010 (Csákó et al., 1999; Bognár, 2010; Gazsó and Laki, 2000; Örkény, 2000; Gazsó and Szabó, 2002; Szabó, 2009). However, two political movements emerged that successfully attracted young supporters and managed to enter the Hungarian parliament in 2010: LMP, a center-leftist party, and Jobbik, a radical rightist party.

In-depth interviews with four young LMP and four Jobbik activists were carried out to examine how different agents of socialization contributed to political participation, and the influences that determine whether one or the other path is chosen, i.e., a democratic, leftist, or a radical rightist one. Informal socialization agents, such as the family and peer influences and political events played an important role in political socialization, while the influence of formal agents, such as school education was missing. The groups shared the same events as clues to their political awakening. In spite of starting from their shared generational community, they chose different solutions according to the ideologies stemming from their political socialization.

Our results about the lack of institutional influences on political socialization indicates the relevance of fostering future changes in the role of schools in conveying norms for democracy.

References

Adams, G. R. (1985) Identity and Political Socialization. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 1985 (30): 61–77.
Bar-Tal, D. and Saxe, L. (1990) Acquisition of Political Knowledge: A Social Psychological Analysis. In Ichilov, O. (ed.) Political Socialization, Citizenship Education and Democracy. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. 116-133.
Bognár, A. (2010) A politikai szocializáció egyes jellegzetességei a fiatalok körében. (Some Characteristics of Political Socialization Among the Youth). Acta Sociologica. Pécsi Szociológiai Szemle, 3 (1): 103-112.
Campbell, D. E. (2008) Voice in the Classroom: How an Open Classroom Climate Fosters Political Engagement Among Adolescents. Political Behavior, 30 (4): 437–454.
Chisholm, L. and Kovacheva, S. (2002) Exploring the European Youth Mosaic: The Social Situation of Young People in Europe. Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe.
Csákó, M., Berényi, E., Bognár, É. and Tomay, K. (1999) Politikai szocializáció Magyarországon a ‘90-es években. (Political Socialization in the 90’s in Hungary). Draft for a Conference Talk.
Csákó, M. (2005) Iskola és politikai szocializáció. (School and Political Socialization). Paper presented at an Eötvös Lóránt Institution(Politika és Iskola 2015) conferemce.-March 24, Budapest..
Dalton, R. J. (2000) Attitudes and Political Behavior. Comparative Political Studies, 2000 (33): 912-940.
Dassonneville, R., Quintelier, E., Hooghe, M. and Claes, E. (2012) The Relation Between Civic Education and Political Attitudes and Behavior: A Two-Year Panel Study Among Belgian Late Adolescents. Applied Developmental Science, 16 (3): 140–150.
Fesnic, F. N. (2014) Can Civic Education Make a Difference for Democracy? Hungary and Poland Compared. Paper presented at the 3rd European Conference on Comparative Electoral Research & Final Conference of the COST Action IS0806 (The True European Voter 2014). April 24-27, Thessaloniki.
Filippov, G. (2011) A név kötelez. A szélsőjobboldal kutatásának terminológiai problémái. (The Name Says It All. Problems of Terminology in the Research of the Far-Right) Politikatudományi Szemle, 20 (3): 133-153.
Flanagan, C. A. and Stout, M. (2010) Developmental Patterns of Social Trust between Early and Late Adolescence: Age and School Climate Effects. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 20 (3): 748–773.
Forbrig, J. (2005) Introduction: Democratic Politics, Legitimacy and Youth Participation. In Forbrig, J. (ed.) Revisiting Youth Political Participation: Challanges for Research and Democratic Practice in Europe. Strasbourg: European Youth Centre. 7-18.
Gazsó, F. and Laki, L. (2000) Esélyek és orientációk – fiatalok az ezredfordulón (Chances and Orientations Youth at the Millenium). Budapest: Okker Kiadó.
Gazsó, F. and Laki, L. (2004) Fiatalok az újkapitalizmusban (Youth in New-Capitalism). Budapest: Napvilág Kiadó.
Gazsó, T. and Szabó, A. (2002) Társadalmi közérzet, politikához való viszony (Societal Mood, Attitude Toward Politics). In: Szabó, A., Bauer, B. and Laki, L. (eds.) Ifjúság2000 Tanulmányok I (Youth2000 Papers I). Budapest: NKI.
Giddens, A.(2000) Szociológia (Sociology). Budapest: Osiris.
Guest, G. S., McQueen, K. M. and Namey, E. E. (2012) Applied Thematic Analysis. London: Sage Publications.
Hanley, S. and Sikk, A. (2012) Paths to “Centrist Populism”? Explaining the Emergence of Anti-Establishment Reform Parties. Paper presented at the 22nd World Congress of Political Science (IPSA 2012) conference. July 8-12, Madrid.
Hooghe, M. and Wilkenfeld, B. (2008) The Stability of Political Attitudes and Behaviors Across Adolescence and Early Adulthood: A Comparison of Survey Data on Adolescents and Young Adults in Eight Countries. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37 (2): 155-167.
Inglehart, R. (1990) Values, Ideology and Mobilization in New Social Movements. In Dalton, R. J. and Kuechler, M. (eds.) Challenging the Political Order: New Social and Political Movements in Western Democracies (Europe and the International Order). Cambridge: Polity Press. 43-66.
Jennings, M. K., Stoker, L. and Bowers, J. (2009) Politics Across Generations: Family Transmission Reexamined. The Journal of Politics, 71 (3): 782–799.
Karácsony, G. (2005) A történelem fogságában. Generációk, életutak és politikai preferenciák Magyarországon. (Trapped by History. Generations, Life Stories and Political Preferences in Hungary). In Angelusz, R. and Tardos, R. (eds.): Törések, hálók, hidak. Választói magatartás és politikai tagolódás Magyarországon (Fractions, Networks, Bridges. Voting Behavior and Political Fragmentation in Hungary). Budapest: Demokrácia Kutatások Magyar Központja Alapítvány. 161-206.
Kende, J. (2011) Support for Civil Liberties and Paths to Taking Action for Human Rights in Hungary. Paper presented at the Political Psychology Networking Conference for the Post-Communist Region. November 25-27, Budapest.
Kovacheva, S. (2005) Will Youth Rejuvenate the Patterns of Political Participation? In Forbrig, J. (ed.) Revisiting Youth Political Participation: Challanges for Research and Democratic Practice in Europe. Strasbourg: European Youth Centre. 19-28.
Langton, K. P. and Jennings, M. K. (1968) Political Socialization and the High School Civics Curriculum in the United States. American Political Science Review, 62 (3): 852–867.
Liebes, T., Katz, E. and Ribak, R. (1991) Ideological Reproduction. Political Behavior, 13 (3): 237–252.
Mannheim, K. (1952) The Problem of Generations. In Mannheim, K. (ed.) Essays on the Sociology of Knowledge. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 276-322.
Merkel, W. and Croissant, A. (2004) Conclusion: Good and Defective Democracies. Democratization, 11 (5): 199–213.
Muxel, A. ( 1999) Az ifjúkor politikai moratóriuma (The Political Moratorium of Adolescence). In Szabó, I. and Csákó, M. (eds.) A politikai szocializáció. Válogatás a francia nyelvterület szakirodalmából (Political Socialization. Selection from the French Literature). Budapest: Új Mandátum Könyvkiadó. 100-124.
Nagy, Á. and dr. Székely, L. (2010) Családon innen, iskolán túl. A harmadlagos szocializációs közeg és az ifjúságügy, mint önálló terület elméleti alapjai (From Family Beyond School. Tertiary Socialization Context and Theoretical Basis of YouthCare, as an Independent Field). Budapest: Excenter.
Merkel, W. and Croissant, A. (2004) Conclusion: Good and Defective Democracies. Democratization, 11 (5): 199–213.
Nasie, M., Bar-Tal, D. and Shnaidman, O. (2014) Activists in Israeli Radical Peace Organizations: Their Personal Stories About Joining and Taking Part in These Organizations. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace, 20 (3): 313–329.
Niemi, R. G. and Finkel, S. E. (2006) Civic Education and the Development of Civic Knowledge and Attitudes. In Harrison, L. E. and Kagan, J. J. (eds.) Developing Cultures: Essays on Cultural Change. London: Routledge. 77-94.
Norris, P. (2003) Young People & Political Activism: From the Politics of Loyalties to the Politics of Choice? Report presented at the Council of Europe Symposium(“Young people and democratic institutions: from disillusionment to participation”). November 27-28, Strasbourg.Örkény, A. (2000) A középiskolát bevégző korosztály politikai ismeretei és cselekvési mintái (The Political Knowledge and Behavioural Patterns of the Age Cohort Finishing High School). In Gábor, K. (ed.) Társadalmi átalakulás és ifjúság. A szabadság, mint esély? (Social Transformation and Youth. Freedom as a Chance?). Szeged: Belvedere Meridionale. 206-207.
Percheron, A. (1971) Az egyén politikai formálódása (Political Development of the Individual). In Szabó, I. and Csákó, M. (1999) (eds.) A politikai szocializáció. Válogatás a francia nyelvterület szakirodalmából (Political Socialization. Selection from the French Literature). Budapest: Új Mandátum Könyvkiadó. 18-43.
Pilcher, J. (1994) Mannheim’s Sociology of Generations: An Undervalued Legacy. British Journal of Sociology, 45 (3): 481-495.Powell, L. and Cowart, J. (2013) Political Campaign Communication: Inside and Out. London: Pearson.
Robertson, F.M. (2009) A Study of Youth Political Participation in Poland and Romania. University College London,Doctoral thesis, London. http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/18725/1/18725.pdf Accessed: 03-05-2015.
Rose, R. and Munro, L. (2003) Parties and Elections in New European Democracies. Washington, DC: CQ Press.
Smith, A. J. (2004) Reflecting on the Development of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis and its Contribution to Qualitative Research in Psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 1 (1): 39-54.
Sik, E. (2011) Pártszimpátia, társadalmi összetétel és értékrend a fiatalok körében. (Party Preference, Societal Characteristics and Values Among the Youth.) Tárki, September 6 http://www.tarki.hu/hu/news/2011/kitekint/20110906.html Accessed: 10-05-2012.
Somlai, P. (1994) Unity and plurality of values in family socialization. Demográfia, 37 (3-4): 373-377.
Svetlozar, A. A. (2005) Corruption, Legitimacy and the Quality of Democracy in Latin America and Central and Eastern Europe. Paper presented at the ICSTE 2005 conference. May 18-19, Lisbon.
Szabó, A. (2015) University and College Students in Hungary, 2015. Budapest: Belveder Meridionale.
Szabó, A. and Kern, T. (2011) A magyar fiatalok politikai aktivitása. (Political Activity of the Hungarian Youth). In Bauer, B. and Szabó, A. (eds.) Arctalan (?) Nemzedék. Ifjúság 2000–2010 (Faceless (?) Generation. Youth 2000-2010). Budapest: Nemzeti Család- és Szociálpolitikai Intézet. 37-80.
Szabó, I. (2009) Nemzet és szocializáció: a politika szerepe az identitások formálódásában Magyarországon, 1867-2006. (Nation and Socialization: The Role of Politics in the Formation of Identities in Hungary, 1867-2006). Budapest: L'Harmattan.
Szabó, I. (2010) Nemzeti identitás és politikai szocializáció (National Identity and Political Socialization). Új Ifjúsági Szemle. 2010 (1): 75-98.
Torney-Purta, J. (2004) Adolescents’ Political Socialization in Changing Contexts: an International Study in the Spirit of Nevitt Sanford. Political Psychology, 25 (3): 465–78.
Torney-Purta, J., Wilkenfeld, B. and Barber, C. (2008) How Adolescents in 27 Countries Understand, Support, and Practice of Human Rights. Journal of Social Issues, 64 (4): 857–80.
Turner, J. C. (1982) Towards a Cognitive Redefinition of the Social Group. In Tajfel, H. (ed.): Social Identity and Intergroup Relations. European Studies of Social Psychology. Cambridge: University Press. 15-40.
van Biezen, I. (2003). Political Parties in New Democracies: Party Organization in Southern and East-Central Europe. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
van Deth, J. W. and Abendschön, S. (2011) Children and Politics: An Empirical Reassessment of Early Political Socialization. Political Psychology, 32 (1): 147-173.
van Stekelenburg, J. and Klandermans, B. (2007) Individuals in Movements. A Social Psychology of Contention. In: Klandermans, B. and Roggeband, C. (eds.) Handbook of Social Movements Across Disciplines. New York: Springer. 157- 204.
Wallace, C. and Kovacheva, S. (1998) Youth in Society: The Construction and Deconstruction of Youth in East and West Europe. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Whiteley, P. F. (2011) Is the Party Over? The Decline of Party Activism and Membership Across the Democratic World. Party Politics, 17 (1): 21-44.
Published
2015-09-29
How to Cite
LANTOS, Nora Anna; KENDE, Anna. From the Same Starting Points to Moderate versus Radical Solutions. Hungarian Case Study on the Political Socialization of Young LMP and Jobbik Party Political Activists. Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics, [S.l.], v. 1, n. 3, sep. 2015. ISSN 2416-089X. Available at: <https://intersections.tk.mta.hu/index.php/intersections/article/view/98>. Date accessed: 15 nov. 2019. doi: https://doi.org/10.17356/ieejsp.v1i3.98.