Securitization of LGBTIQ Minority in Serbian Far-right Discourses: A Post-structuralist Perspective
This article analyses the securitization of LGBTIQ population in the narratives of Serbian far-right organizations, i.e. the discursive construction of the LGBTIQ minorities as a threat. The analysis relies on securitization theory in order to demonstrate how the issue of gay rights is taken beyond ‘normal politics’ and constructed as a security issue. By drawing upon post-structuralist reading of securitization theory, this article argues that the narratives of Serbian far-right groups acquire legitimacy due to their coherence with the mainstream discourses on homosexuality and LGBTIQ rights. Moreover, it argues that through the securitization of sexual minorities in the far-right discourses, the Serbian national identity is being re-defined and strengthened. This article uses discourse analysis as main method. The sources of data include press statements and other media pieces, reports by civil society organizations and government institutions, public opinion surveys and websites of the far-right groups. The analysis is focused on the period from the adoption of the Anti-discrimination Law in 2009 onwards, as the period in which the issue of LGBTIQ rights has become increasingly topical in the Serbian public sphere.
Atanacković, P. (2011) Od nacionalizma do neonacizma (From Nationalism to Neo-Nazism), In Milinović, D. and M. Perović (eds.) Desni ekstremizam: Ultradesnicarske i Neonacisticke grupacije na prostoru bivse SFRJ (Right-Wing Extremism: Far-Right and Neo-Nazi Groups in Former Yugoslavia), Novi Sad: AKO. 3-8.
Barth, F. (1969) (eds.) Ethnic Groups and Boundaries. Oslo: Norwegian University Press.
Blagojević-Hughson, M. (2012) Rodni barometar u Srbiji: razvoj i svakodnevni život (The Gender Barometer in Serbia: Development and Everyday Life). Belgrade: UNDP. http://www.eiz.hr/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Rodni-barometar-u-Srbiji-web-istovi1.pdf. Accessed: 10-02-2015.
Bracewell, W. (1996) Woman, Motherhood and Contemporary Serbian Nationalism. Women’s Studies International Forum. 19 (1-2): 25-33.
Bracewell, W. (2000) Rape in Kosovo: Masculinity and Serbian Nationalism. Nations and Nationalism. 6 (4): 563–590.
Buzan, B., O. Wæver and J. de Wilde (1998) Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Buzan, B. and O. Wæver (2003) Regions and Powers: the Structure of International Security. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Commissioner for Protection of Equality (2012) Regular Annual Report of the Commissioner for Protection of Equality for 2011. Belgrade: Commissioner for Protection of Equality.
http://www.ravnopravnost.gov.rs/jdownloads/files/2011%20Regular%20Annual%20Report.pdf. Accessed: 10-02-2015.
Commissioner for Protection of Equality (2013) Odnos građana prema diskriminaciji u Srbiji (Citizens’ Attitudes on Discrimination in Serbia). Belgrade: Commissioner for Protection of Equality.
Commissioner for Protection of Equality (2014) Regular Annual Report of the Commissioner for Protection of Equality for 2013. Belgrade: Commissioner for Protection of Equality. http://www.ravnopravnost.gov.rs/en/reports/annual-report. Accessed: 10-02-2015.
Čongradin, S., J. Diković and S. Novosel (2009) SPC i verske zajednice protiv Ustava Srbije (Serbian Orthodox Church and Other Religious Communities against the Serbian Constitution). Danas [n. d.].
Connolly, W. E. (1991) Identity/Difference. Democratic Negotiations of Political Paradox. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Dinić, R. (2010) Zveri Srpske (The Beasts of Serbia). Peščanik. http://pescanik.net/zveri-srpske/. Accessed: 10-02-2015.
European Commission (2014) Serbia Progress Report. Brussels: European Commission. http://www.seio.gov.rs/documents/eu-documents.231.html. Accessed: 10-02-2015.
Foucault, M.  (1972) The Archaeology of Knowledge. New York: Routledge.
Gay Straight Alliance (2010) Prejudices Exposed: Homophobia in Serbia 2010. Belgrade: Gay Straight Alliance. http://gsa.org.rs/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/Research-Prejudices-Exposed-2010-GSA.pdf. Accessed: 10-02-2015.
Gay Straight Alliance (2013) Godišnji izveštaj o stanju ljudskih prava LGBT osoba za 2012. godinu (Annual Report on the Status of Human Rights of LGBT Parsons for 2011). Belgrade: Gay Straight Alliance. http://gsa.org.rs/izvestaji/GSA-izvestaj-2012.pdf. Accessed: 10-02-2015.
Greenberg, J. (2006) Nationalism, Masculinity and Multicultural Citizenship in Serbia. Nationalities Papers, 34 (3): 321-341.
Hansen, L. (2006) Security as Practice: Discourse Analysis and the Bosnian War. New York: Routledge.
Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Serbia (2014) Ljudska prava u Srbiji 2013: Istinski otpor liberalnim vrednostima (Human Rights in Serbia 2013: Resistance to Liberal Values). Belgrade: Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Serbia. http://www.helsinki.org.rs/serbian/doc/izvestaj2013.pdf. Accessed: 10-02-2015.
Jovanović, M. (2013) Silence or Condemnation: The Orthodox Church on Homosexuality in Serbia. Druzboslovne razprave, 29 (73): 79–95.
Jørgensen, M. W. and L. J. Phillips (2002) Discourse Analysis as Theory and Method. London: Sage.
Krebs, R.R. and P.T. Jackson (2007) Twisting Tongues and Twisting Arms: The Power of Political Rhetoric. European Journal of International Relations, 13(1): 35–66.
Kuljić, T. (2002) Prevladavanje prošlosti: Uzroci i pravci promene slike istorije krajem XX veka (Overcoming the Past: Causes and Directions of the Change in the Image of History at the End of the Twentieth Century). Belgrade: Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Serbia.
Kuljić, T. (2012) Anti-antifašizam (Anti-Antifascism). In Beslin, M.and P. Atanacković (eds.) Antifašizam pred izazovima savremenosti (Antifascism Faced with Contemporary Challenges). Novi Sad: AKO, 55-70.
Labris (2007) Govor mržnje prema lezbejskoj i gej populaciji u elektronskim medijima (Hate Speech against Lesbian and Gay Population in the Electronic Media). Belgrade: Labris. http://labris.org.rs/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/govor-mrznje.pdf. Accessed: 10-02-2015.
Laclau, E. and C. Mouffe (1985) Hegemony and Socialist Strategy: Towards a Radical Democratic Politics. London: Verso.
McSweeney, B. (1996) Identity and Security: Buzan and the Copenhagen School. Review of International Studies, 22 (1): 81–93.
Milosavljević, O. (2007) ‘Dobri’ nacionalizam (The ‘Good’ Nationalism), Peščanik. http://pescanik.net/dobri-nacionalizam/. Accessed: 10-02-2015.
Mosse, G. (1985) Nationalism and Sexuality: Middle-Class Morality and Sexual Norms in Modern Europe. Madison, Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press.
Mosse, G. (1996) The Image of Man: The Creation of Modern Masculinity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
National Assembly of the Republic of Serbia (2006) Constitution of the Republic of Serbia. Official Gazette, 98/2006.
Obradović, B. (2009) Deset razloga za izlazak na Porodičnu šetnju (Ten Reasons to Join the Family Walk). Nova srpska politička misao. Available at: http://www.nspm.rs/politicki-zivot/deset-razloga-za-izlazak-na-porodicnu-setnju.html. Accessed: 10-02-2015.
Papić, Z. (1994) From State Socialism to State Nationalism: The Case of Serbia in Gender Perspective. Refuge, 14 (3): 10-14.
Pejić, M. (2013) Uloga medija u sekuritizaciji Parade ponosa (The Role of the Media in Securitization of the Pride Parade). Conference paper presented at ‘Riječ, slika i neprijatelj’ (‘Words, Images and Enemies’) conference held in Podgorica, Montenegro on 11-13 December 2013. Available at: http://www.fbd.org.rs/akcije/POJEDINACNE/VIP%205%20SEKURITIZACIJA%20PRAJDA.pdf Accessed: 10-02-2015.
Petakov, Z. (2009) Neonacističke, fašističke i ekstremno desničarske organizacije u Srbiji danas (Neo-nazi, Fascist and Extreme Right Organizations in Today’s Serbia). In Klarić, Ž. and P. Atanacković (eds.) Mapiranje desnog ekstremizma (Mapping of Right-wing Extremism), Novi Sad: Cenzura, 42-54.
Višnjić, J. (2012) LGBT populacija u štampanim medijima u Srbiji 2011 (LGBT Population in Printed Media In Serbia 2011). Belgrade: Labris. http://labris.org.rs/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/mediji_sr.pdf. Accessed: 10-02-2015.
Wæver, O. (1995) Securitization and Desecuritization. In Lipschutz, R. D. (ed.) On Security. New York: Columbia University Press. 46–86.
Wæver, O. (2002) Identity, Communities and Foreign Policy: Discourse Analysis as Foreign Policy Theory. In Hansen, L. and O. Wæver (eds.) European Integration and National Identity. New York: Routledge. 20–49.
Wilhelmsen, J. (2013) How War Becomes Acceptable: Russian Re-phrasing of Chechnya. PhD thesis in Political Science, submitted to the Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Oslo.
Youth Initiative for Human Rights (2013) Primena standarda pravičnog suđenja u pravosudnom sistemu Srbije (Implementation of the Fair Trial Standards in the Judiciary System of Serbia). Belgrade: Youth Initiative for Human Rights. http://www.defende.rs/wp-content/uploads/Primena-standarda-pravi%C4%8Dnog-sudjenja-u-pravosudnom-sistemu-Srbije-2013.pdf. Accessed: 10-02-2015.
Yuval-Davis, N. (1998) Gender and Nation. In Wilford, R. and R. L. Miller (eds.) Women, Ethnicity and Nationalism: The Politics of Transition. New York: Routledge. 21-31.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication, with the work three months after publication simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal. This acknowledgement is not automatic, it should be asked from the editors and can usually be obtained one year after its first publication in the journal.