What is in the Scandinavian Nexus of ‘Islamophobia, Multiculturalism, and Muslim-Western Relations’?
AbstractStudies of European political party programmes, social movements, news media coverage, scores of books, and social media networks have embraced a negative dialogue towards migrants, whose identities are increasingly seen as incompatible with ‘Western’ values and presenting a major challenge to democracy. Sponsors of these public discourses support anti-immigration and oppositional stances to ‘migrant sympathizers’, who are often represented as traitors or cowards. They also fuel a process where xenophobia, Islamophobia and zero-tolerance have become naturalized and morally accepted ways to respond to the non-Western migrants. The objective of this article is to explore how this position embeds a number of other negativities, such as multiculturalists, feminists, and ‘liberals’ (left-wingers). The article approaches this coexistence of negativities as a ‘nexus of exclusionary beliefs’ with its blurred relations and taken for granted assumptions in the Muhammad Cartoon Affair in Denmark, the media coverage of the terrorist attack in Norway 2011; a blog entry about Radical Islam, feminism and left-wingers; and discussion about immigrant youth and drinking on a website connected to one of Denmark’s most popular radio programmes targeting younger listeners.
Abu-Lughod, Lila. 2013. Do Muslim Women Need Saving? Boston: Harvard University Press
Anthias, Floya. 2012. “Intersectional what? Social divisions, intersectionality and levels of analysis”. Ethnicities 13(1):3-19
Appadurai, Arjun. 2006. Fear of Small Numbers. Durham and London: Duke University Press.
Balibar, Etienne. 2005. “Difference, Otherness, Exclusion.” Parallax, vol. 11(1):19-34.
Balibar, Etienne. 2012. “Civic Universalism and Its Internal Exclusions: The Issue of Anthropological Difference.” Boundary 2, 39: 207-229
Bangstad, Sindre 2014. Anders Breivik and the Rise of Islamophobia. London: Zed Books.
Baumann, Gerd 1999: The Multicultural Riddle: Rethinking National, Ethnic, and Religious Identities. Routledge: New York og London.
Boe, Carolina S. and Peter Hervik 2008. “Integration through Insult.” In Transnational Media Events: The Mohammad Cartoons and the Imagined Clash of Civilizations, E. Eide et al. (eds.), pp. 213–34. Gothenburg: Nordicom.
Boisen, Sophie and Peter Hervik. 2013 “Danish Media Coverage of 22/7.” Nordic Journal for Migration Research Vol 3, Issue 4 (197-204). Theme issue edited by Hervik, Peter and Susi Meret.
Bonilla-Silva. E. 2010. Racism without racists: Color-blind racism and the persistence of racial inequality in the United States (3rd ed.) Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Danesi, M. 2009. “Opposition Theory and the Interconnectedness of Language, Culture, and Cognition.” Sign System Studies, Vol 37(1/2):11-41.
Døving, C.A. 2010. “Anti-Semitism and Islamophobia: A Comparison of Imposed Group Identities.” Tidsskrift for Islamforskning, Vol 2.
Eide, Elisabeth, Maria Kjølstad, and Anja Naper. 2013. “After the 22 July terror in Norway: media debates on freedom of expression and multiculturalism.” Nordic Journal of Migration Research, Vol. 2: 187-196
Entman, Robert M. 1993. “Framing: Toward Clarification of a Fractured Paradigm.” Journal of Communication 43, no. 2: 51–58.
Foucault, Michel. 2003. Abnormal: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1974-1975. Marchetti, Valerio and Antonella Salomoni (eds.). New York: Picador.
Gad, Ulrik P. 2008. “It takes two to Tango. Danish concepts of dialogue as counterterrorism.” NUPI Working Paper 747, Oslo.
Garden, Mary. 2012. “Defining blog: A fool’s errand or a necessary undertaking.” Journalism 13(4):483-499.
Gingrich, A. and Banks, M. (eds.). 2006. Neo-Nationalism in Europe and Beyond: Perspectives from Social Anthropology. Berghahn Books: Oxford.
Hanks, William. F. 1990. Referential Practice. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Hervik, Peter (ed.). 1999. Den generende forskellighed. Danske svar på den stigende multikulturalisme. Copenhagen: Hans Reitzels Forlag.
Hervik, Peter. 2002. Mediernes muslimer. En antropologisk undersøgelse af mediernes dækning af religioner i Danmark. The Board for Ethnic Equality: Copenhagen.
Hervik, Peter. 2008. “The Original Spin and its Side Effects: Freedom Speech as Danish News Management.” In Transnational Media Events.
The Mohammed Cartoons and the Imagined Clash of Civilizations. Eide, Elizabeth, Risto Kunelius, Risto & Angela Phillips (eds.), pp. 59-80. Nordicom: Gothenburg.
Hervik, Peter. 2011. The Annoying Difference. The Emergence of Danish Neonationalism, Neoracism, and Populism in the Post-1989 World. New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books
Hervik, Peter. 2112a. The Danish Muhammad Cartoon Conflict. Current Themes in IMER Research 13, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM), Malmö University.
Hervik, Peter. 2012b. “Ending Tolerance as a Solution to Incompatibility: The Danish ‘Crisis of Multiculturalism.’” European Journal of Cultural Studies 15(2):211-225. Theme issue edited by Lentin, Alana and Gavan Titley.
Hervik, Peter. 2014. “Cultural War of Values: The Proliferation of Moral Identities in the Danish Public Sphere.” In Becoming Minority: How Discourses and Policies Produce Minorities in Europe and India, Tripathy, Jyotirmaya and Sudarsan Padmanabhan (eds.). pp. 154-173. New Delhi: Sage Publications, India. November 2014
Hervik, Peter. 2015. ”Xenophobia and Nativism.” In International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, Anthropology, 2nd edition, Hannerz, U. and Dominique Boyer, D. (eds). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Ignatieff, M. 1997. The Warrior’s Honor. New York: Holt Paperback, Metropolitan Books/Henry Holt and Company
Kalin, I. 2011. “Islamophobia and the Limits of Multiculturalism.” In Islamophobia: The Challenge of Pluralism in the 21st Century, Esposito, John L. and Ibrahim Kalin (eds.), pp. 5-20. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Keskinen, Suvi. 2011. “Borders of the Finnish nation: media, politics and rape by ‘foreign’ perpetrators.” In Media in motion. Cultural complexity and migration in the Nordic region, Eide, Elisabeth & Karina Nikunen (eds.), pp. 107-124. Ashgate Publishing Group: Ashgate Farnham.
Keskinen, Suvi. 2013. “Antifeminism And White Identity Politics: Political antagonisms in radical right-wing populist and anti-immigration rhetoric in Finland” Nordic Journal of Migration Research, Volume 3 (4): 225–232
Lule, Jack. 2001. Daily News, Eternal Stories: The Mythological Role of Journalism. New York: Guilford Press
Mamdani, Mahmood. 2004. Good Muslim, Bad Muslim: America, the Cold War, and the Roots of Terror. New York: Pantheon.
Miles, Robert. 1989. Racism. London: Routledge.
Miles, Robert. 1993. Racism after “Race Relations.” London: Routledge.
Peterson, Mark Allen. 2003. Anthropology and Mass Communication. New York: Berghahn Books.
Rasch, William. 2000. “Conflict as a Vocation: Carl Schmitt and the Possibility of Politics.” Theory, Culture and Society 17, no. 6: 1–32.
Schmitt, Carl. 1996. The Concept of the Political. Chicago: University of Chicago Press (orig. pub. 1932).
Tannen, Deborah. 1999. The Argument Culture: Stopping America’s War on Words. New York; Ballantine Books.
Tannen, Deborah. 2002. “Agonism in Academic Discourse.” Journal of Pragmatics 34;1651-1669.
Titley, Gavan. 2008. “Exclusion through Openness. A Tentative Anatomy of the ritual of ‘Migration Debates.’” https://helda.helsinki.fi/bitstream/handle/10138/32361/011_04_titley.pdf?sequence=1
Vertovic, Steven and Susanne Wessendorf (eds.). 2010. The Multiculturalism Backlash. London: Routledge.
Vresse, Claes H. de 2003. Framing Europe: Television News and European Integration. Amsterdam: Aksant Academic Publishers.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication, with the work three months after publication simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal. This acknowledgement is not automatic, it should be asked from the editors and can usually be obtained one year after its first publication in the journal.