Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics <p><em>Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics</em> (IEEJSP) is a peer-reviewed journal promoting multidisciplinary and comparative thinking on Eastern and Central European societies in a global context. IEEJSP publishes research with international relevance and encourages comparative analysis both within the region and with other parts of the world. Founded by the Centre for Social Sciences of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, and published currently by Centre for Social Sciences in Budapest, IEEJSP provides an international forum for scholars coming from and/or working on the region.</p> <p>Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics is indexed by Web of Science, Scopus, EBSCO, CEEOL, ERIH, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus. The evaluation process is at an advanced stage with ProQuest Sociological Abstracts and DOAJ.</p> <p><em> </em>..............................................................................................................</p> <div id="content"> </div> Centre for Social Sciences, Hungary en-US Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics 2416-089X <p><strong>Copyright Notice</strong></p><p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p><p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication, with the work three months after publication simultaneously licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p><p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal. This acknowledgement is not automatic, it should be asked from the editors and can usually be obtained one year after its first publication in the journal.</p> Who and what is Jewish? <p>Focusing on Jewishness, which is placed at the intersection of race, ethnicity, nationality and religion, the article provides a case study of the complexity of legally validated ethno-racial classifications. The case of the Jewry is chosen due to its peculiar history and contemporary experience of persecution and discrimination, the myth, and the challenging legal concept of assimilation, and the unique case of Israel, the ‘official national homeland’ of the Jewry offering an official definition, which may also serve as a reference point for the Diaspora.</p> Andras Laszlo Pap Copyright (c) 2024 Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics 2024-01-09 2024-01-09 9 3 167 187 10.17356/ieejsp.v9i3.1279 'Everybody likes it more when it's even' <p>In April 2022, the Polish Children’s Ombudsman publicly addressed the Minister of Justice, demanding changes in family law regarding child custody post-parental separation. The Ombudsman pointed out the lack of a legal definition of joint physical custody (JPC) and suggested there should be a clear definition and associated regulation. The Ombudsman’s address is one part of the debate on JPC that has recently emerged in Poland. Politicians, mothers, and fathers are actively engaged in the debate, with each of their voices well represented. Both supporters and opponents of joint physical custody claim that their main concern is the best interest of the child. However, no attempts have been made to listen to children’s opinions about custodial arrangements.</p> <p>This article is based on interviews with 23 children living in JPC. I asked the children about their everyday experience of home and belonging and their relationships with their parents, siblings, and parents’ new partners. I also asked their opinions on how custodial arrangements should be made to suit them. The interviewees complained about the inconvenience of frequent moves but also stated that living with their mother and father interchangeably allowed them to be as close to each of the parents as they desired. For this reason, the interviewees considered JPC a preferable solution after divorce.</p> Maria Reimann Copyright (c) 2023 Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics 2024-01-09 2024-01-09 9 3 188 201 10.17356/ieejsp.v9i3.1120 Revisiting the Weberian conceptual framework and its relevance for analysing ethnic and racial relations in contemporary times <p>Max Weber was a forerunner and one of the most innovative sociologists of his time. Among the many and diverse contributions to his extensive work, this article aims to highlight his importance and pioneering spirit in the analysis of ethnic and racial relations. Based on the fact that Romani people (known as Ciganos in Portugal) comprise the most numerous minority in Europe (10–12 million), we aim to discuss the relevance and limits of certain conceptual tools and forms of (self) categorization of Ciganos/Roma, namely those based on racial and ethnic phenomena, revisiting Max Weber’s writings. Based on a qualitative study carried out on Portuguese Ciganos/Roma, using in-depth interviews of women and men resident in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, we seek to question the pertinence of these forms of categorization when applied in operative and empirical ways to Ciganos/Roma persons in contemporaneity.</p> Maria Manuela Mendes Copyright (c) 2023 Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics 2024-01-09 2024-01-09 9 3 10 18 10.17356/ieejsp.v9i3.1128 Weber and the European City in the 21st century <p>Max Weber has left a 100-page long text that played a main role in his argumentation on the particular development of Europe in contrast to especially Asia. Main difference, according to Weber, is the development of a ‘local society’ where freedom and the association of free citizens laid the ground for a democratic society. In the reception of this text, a critical view on main assumptions on the ‘European city’ has been dominant. In particular, the notions of conflict and inequality have not been integrated into his argumentation. Nevertheless, some sociologists even today, see Weber and his text as a kind of starting point to understand the social and political construction of urban societies in Europe. Firstly, a critical introduction into the core ideas of Weber on the city will be presented. Subsequently, the article discusses whether the ‘European city’ can still be regarded as a meaningful term to explain the process of urban restructuring taking place today. Although not rejecting the Weberian notion of the city, it will be highlighted that his understanding of ‘urban society’ leaves out recent processes of the post-Fordist restructuring of space.</p> Frank Eckardt Copyright (c) 2023 Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics 2024-01-09 2024-01-09 9 3 29 43 10.17356/ieejsp.v9i3.1124 Max Weber played the piano more than a hundred years ago <p>Music has always been a concern for sociology, and its classic authors attest to this. We begin this article – which is essayistic in nature – with a substantive analysis of this tradition that continues to (re)shape the sociology of music today. Amongst these classics, we would like to highlight its greatest name: Max Weber. In fact, this author developed a long-term analysis of Western music, especially with the advance of rationalisation, somewhat similar to his analyses of the spirit of capitalism and the genesis of bureaucracy in Europe in his study <em>The Rational and Social Foundations of Music</em> – written between 1912–1913 and published posthumously in 1921. We then establish a link between Weber's thesis and the sociology of music today, centring our analysis on contemporary music production through the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI), but also the digital universe more broadly. Weber's theoretical contributions are explored in relation to this, focusing on the interconnection between his concept of rationalisation and the emerging digitalisation of music – in particular, streaming services.</p> Paula Guerra Copyright (c) 2023 Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics 2024-01-09 2024-01-09 9 3 44 60 10.17356/ieejsp.v9i3.1192 Acknowledging the plural Weberian rationalities in clinical embryology <p>This paper addresses the plural forms of reasoning used by clinical embryologists when deciding the fate of the human embryos they create and manipulate in the laboratory setting through assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Our analysis draws on empirical material from in-depth interviews with 20 clinical embryologists working at public and private fertility units/clinics in Portugal. Within a bureaucratic organisation based on a high level of professional specialisation, embryologists display multiple perspectives on the criteria they use to evaluate and classify the embryo’s quality, potential and viability. Taxonomies, international guidelines and statistical data are largely used by embryologists to qualify the embryos, basing their action on an <em>instrumental rationality</em> (efficient means and calculated ends recognized inductively). However, beyond technical-scientific facts and theories as intellectual tools for action, some of them also mobilize alternative ethical rationalities. Namely, <em>value-rational action</em> based on moral valuations and legitimate rules/ends, <em>affectual rationality</em> governed by emotions, affects and feeling states (such as empathy with the beneficiaries), and <em>traditional rationality</em> based on habits and routines (embryologist’s <em>feeling</em> gained by experience) intervene too. Therefore, Weber’s distinctive ideal-types and theoretical contributions, namely his foundational four <em>types of social action</em> are relevant for rethinking professional practices within ART, especially clinical embryology.</p> Catarina Delaunay Luís Gouveia Copyright (c) 2023 Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics 2024-01-09 2024-01-09 9 3 61 86 10.17356/ieejsp.v9i3.1148 Rationalizing ‘Vivir Bien’ <p>Drawing on the 2011 march against a highway project through the Isiboro Sécure National Park and Indigenous<br />Territory (TIPNIS) in Bolivia, this paper reviews Max Weber’s conceptions on rationality, situating the TIPNIS protest<br />in the interface between the modern formal-instrumental rationality of Bolivian State with the Substantive rationality<br />proposed as ‘Vivir Bien’; an umbrella term for a conglomeration of Latin American indigenous proposals for a<br />sustainable human and nature relationship beyond neoliberalism, colonialism, and their cultural and environmental<br />consequences. As any modern institution, the Bolivian State seeks to impose modern means-ends calculations,<br />discourses and practices, thus subduing the original transformational potential of ‘Vivir Bien’ as a different rationality,<br />with its means-ends framework, knowledge and patterns of action.<br />In this regard, from a Weberian critique of Modernity, two questions will be raised. First, to recognize the modern<br />state as the institutional embodiment of modern formal-instrumental rationality, bounded to the means-ends framework<br />settled by Modernity. Secondly, to evaluate the conditions for the possibility of incorporating other rationalities into the<br />modern state, allowing another means-ends calculation for state policy-making as well as other patterns of action and<br />sociality.<br />From these considerations, this paper realizes modern rationalism in front of other rationalisms, other human<br />worldviews and practices in a critical search of alternative approaches and proposals to attend to local and global<br />problems that threaten sustainable human existence, from environmental devaluation to social inequality.</p> Rubén Darío Castellano Durán Copyright (c) 2023 Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics 2024-01-09 2024-01-09 9 3 87 106 10.17356/ieejsp.v9i3.1139 The Arab Spring’ as a challenge to the Weberian analysis of Islam <p>The purpose of this paper is the application of some Weberian conceptual categories to the contemporary Islamic world. The reconstruction of Weberian thought on the religion of Muhammad seems to retain some heuristic capacity: although modified over time, the organization of Islam gave rise to dynasties with charismatic political leadership who constituted patrimonial-sultanistic forms of power, with their own armies and personal bureaucracy. Characteristics of this type can be traced in the Maghreb and Mashriq countries, where there was an almost exclusive monopoly of power by the state and the prevalence of personal relationships over institutions. A political form that Weber described in terms of neo-patrimonial societies, with a strong role of the charismatic figure of the leader, a society conceived as a collection of groups and not individuals, a centralization of power by the state, and a private and clientelistic management of economic resources by ruling elites. The Arab revolutions of 2010 can be read as a struggle against this neo-patrimonialist model in countries such as Egypt, Tunisia, and Syria. More than a decade after the outbreak of the revolutions, the purpose of this paper is to examine whether indeed these countries have overcome those obstacles to modernization and development identified by the German sociologist in Islamic societies.</p> Patrizia Laurano Copyright (c) 2023 Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics 2024-01-09 2024-01-09 9 3 107 129 10.17356/ieejsp.v9i3.1129 Orthodox charismatic communities and social change during the Bulgarian transitional period (1980s–1990s) <p>The article is devoted to the relationship between religiosity and social action. It studies religious communities in Bulgaria as active subjects of social change in the period of transition from a totalitarian to a democratic society in the 1980s and 1990s. The subjects of the study are Orthodox charismatic communities, established formally as political formations in the mid 1980s but by the mid 1990s gradually transforming into religious ones. The article is based on the Weberian social action theory and value-spheres typology. Using historical and sociological approaches an analysis of documents and of semi-standardized interviews is done.</p> Georgeta Nazarska Copyright (c) 2023 Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics 2024-01-09 2024-01-09 9 3 130 147 10.17356/ieejsp.v9i3.1141 The ‘Spirit’ of Schooling <p>In <em>The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism </em>(PE), Max Weber examines the ecological domination of instrumental rationality to the detriment of value-oriented action. The concept of the calling (<em>Beruf </em>in German) becomes a key one for interpreting the process of value rationalization. One can find Weberian value-rationality among the Portuguese Roma/Ciganos, who seek alternative livelihood strategies via schooling, although they are still characterized by a high rate of early school dropouts, with a very low number of students attending secondary education. The EDUCIG (School performance among Ciganos/Roma: action research and co-design) project was launched in 2019 to grasp the multiple factors involved in this social problem. The project interview-based analysis entailed the participation of 31 Roma/Ciganos students from the metropolitan areas of Lisbon and Porto. Results suggest that despite the social, cultural and economic constraints affecting their school pathways, the academic success of young Roma/Ciganos is facilitated by the influence of religion, specifically the Pentecostal Evangelical Church and its respective values. Moreover, we can recognize the emergence of a new ‘spirit’ in these young Roma/Ciganos, a ‘spirit’ that does not aim at instant gratification but represents an investment in the future and, simultaneously, a desire for integration.</p> Pedro Caetano Maria Manuela Mendes Copyright (c) 2023 Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics 2024-01-09 2024-01-09 9 3 148 166 10.17356/ieejsp.v9i3.1145 Book Review <p>Engaging Authority is a book being part of the series ‘Frontiers of the Political’. The book edited by Trevor Stack and Rose Luminiello engages with concepts of political theory and offers a framework to reconceptualize our views on political community and citizenship at the same time. The book was put in print as the quarantines were ordered all over the world in 2020.</p> <p>The book engages authority via two concepts: political community and citizenship. Authors with distinct disciplinary backgrounds introduce their case studies with the aim to grasp the nuances of relations to political authority. By doing so, the book provides an excellent opportunity to move beyond the regular discussion of democratic norms and offers an original agenda to reconceptualize citizenship and political authority in more authoritarian settings as well.</p> Aliz Nagy Copyright (c) 2023 Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics 2024-01-09 2024-01-09 9 3 202 206 10.17356/ieejsp.v9i3.1248 Editorial <p>-</p> Pedro Jorge da Costa Caetano Stefania Toma Thomas Kemple Maria Manuela Mendes Copyright (c) 2023 Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics 2024-01-09 2024-01-09 9 3 1 9 10.17356/ieejsp.v9i3.1287