Adverse Incorporation of the Roma and the Formation of Capitalism in Romania

  • Eniko Vincze Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj, Romania


Empirically rooted in the findings of a research conducted between 2012- 2014 in localities of Romania under the umbrella of a larger contextual inquiry concerning faces and causes of marginalisation of the Roma, the approach of this article is informed by critical urban theory’s understanding of the political economy of space and development, and their role in the formation of capitalism. My study argues: the way how marginalised Roma are included into the mainstream society while pushed into and kept in its dispossessed spatial and social peripheries, is a manifestation of the adverse incorporation of a precariatised and racialised working class into the capitalist system. In Chapters 2 and 3 the article describes how, on the one hand, the politics of socio-spatial marginalisation and, on the other hand, the politics of entrepreneurial development creates the Roma as adversely incorporated (dispossessed and racialised) subject. Furthermore, Chapters 4 and 5 of the analysis conclude that nowadays capitalism (in Romania) is (also) formed through the politics of socio-spatial exclusion and racialisation of the working class (Roma), and as well as through the politics of entrepreneurial development conceived via neoliberal governance that exclude them from development resources. Therefore the article proposes to use the analysis of the adverse incorporation of the Roma as a critique of capitalism. 


Baar van, H. (2011) The European Roma. Minority Representation, Memory, and the Limits of Transnational Governmentality. University of Amsterdaam.

Bacqué, M-H. and C. Biewener (2013) Different Manifestations of the Concept of Empowerment: The Politics of Urban Renewal in the
United States and the United Kingdom. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. Vol. 37. n°6: 2198–2213.

Bariș Kuymulu, M. (2013) The Vortex of Rights: ‘Right to the City’ at a Crossroads. International Journal of Urban and Regional
Research. Volume 37. Nr. 3: 923-940.

Castells, M. (1977) The Urban Question. A Marxist Approach (Alan Sheridan, translator). London, Edward Arnold (Original publication
in French, 1972).

Brenner, N.

(2000) Urban question as scale question. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. Volume 24. Nr. 2: 361-378.

(2004) Urban Governance and the Production of New State Spaces in Western Europe 1960-2000. Review of International
Political Economy. Vol. 11. No. 3: 447-488.

(2009a) What is critical urban theory? City. Vol 13. Nos. 2-3: 198-209.

(2009b) Restructuring, rescaling and the urban question. Critical Planning. Nr. 16: 60-79. :

Brenner, N. and N. Theodor (2002) Cities and the geographies of actually existing neoliberalism. Antipode. Volume 34. Issue 3: 349-

N. Brenner, J. Peck and N. Theodore (2010) After Neoliberalization? Globalizations. Vol. 7. No. 3: 327–345.

Brenner, N., P. Marcuse and M. Mayer (eds.) (2011) Cities for people, not for profit: Critical Urban Theory and the Right to the City.

Brenner, N., D.J. Madden and D. Wachsmuth (2011) Assemblage urbanism and the challenges of critical urban theory. City: analysis of
urban trends, culture, theory, policy, action. Vol. 15. Nr. 2: 225-240.

Chomsky, N. (1999) Profit Over People. Neoliberalism and Global Order. New York: Seven Stories Press.

Foucault, M.

(1991) Governmentality. In G. Burchell, C. Gordoin and P. Miller (eds.) The Foucault Effect:Studies in Governmentality.
Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.

(1982) The Subject and Power. Critical Enquiry. 8 (4): 777-795.

Harvey, D. z

(1985) The urban experience. The Johns Hopkins University Press. ?

(2005) A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford University Press.

(2006) Spaces of Global Capitalism. Towards a Theory of Uneven Geographical Development. Verso.

(2008) The right to the city. New left review. Vol. 53: 23-40.

(2009) Social Justice and the City. The University of Georgia Press.

Hickey, S. and A. du Toit (2007) Adverse Incorporation, Social Exclusion and Chronic Poverty. CPRC Working Paper 8. Institute for
Development Policy and Management. School of Environment and Development. University of Manchester.

Jessop, B. (2002) Liberalism, Neoliberalism and Urban Governance: a State-theoretical Perspective. Antipode. Vol. 34. n°3: 452–472.

Lefebvre, H.

(1968) Le Droit à la ville. Paris: Anthropos (2nd ed.). –nincs csak első:

(1991) The Production of Space (trans. by Donald Nicholson-Smith). Oxford: Basil Blackwell. (Originally published in 1974, La
production de l'espace, Paris: Anthropos).

Marcuse, P., J. Connolly, J. Novy, I. Olivo, C. Potter and J. Steil (eds) (2009) Searching for the Just City. Debates in urban theory and
practice. London and New York: Routledge.

Morange, M. and S. Fol (2014) City, Neoliberalisation and Justice. [Translation: John Crisp]. justice spatiale|spatial justice. n°6: 1-29.

Peck, J., T. Nik and N. Brenner (2013) Neoliberal Urbanism Redux? International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. Vol. 37. No.
3: 1091–1099.

Purcell, M. (2002) Excavating Lefebvre: The right to the city and its urban politics of the inhabitant. GeoJournal. Nr. 58: 99–108.

Shore, C. and S. Wright (1997) (eds.) Anthropology of Policy. Critical Perspectives on Governance and Power. Routledge.

Shore, C., S. Wright and D. Però (2011) (eds.) Policy Worlds: Anthropology and the Analysis of Contemporary Power. Bergham Books.

Smith, N. (2002) New globalism, new urbanism: gentrification as global urban strategy. Antipode. Volume 34. Issue 3: 427-450.

Szalai, J. and V. Zentai (eds.) (2014) Faces and Causes of Roma Marginalization in Local Contexts, E-book. Budapest: CEU Center for
Policy Studies, Central European University.

Vincze, E.

(2014) Faces and Causes of Roma Marginalization: the case of Romania. In Júlia Szalai and Violetta Zentai (eds.) Faces and
Causes of Roma Marginalization in Local Contexts. E-book. Budapest: CEU Center for Policy Studies, Central European University: 67-

(2015a) Globalization of neoliberalism in Romania through the reform of the state and entrepreneurial development. Studia
Europaea. LX. 1: 125-151.

(2015b) Precariatisation of working class Roma through spatial deprivation, labour destitution and racialization. In print.
Hungarian Review of Sociology. 2015/4.

Vincze, E. and C. Raț (2013) Guest Editors’ Foreword for the Special Issue on “Spatialization and Racialization of Social Exclusion. The
Social and Cultural Formation of ‘Gypsy Ghettos’ in Romania in a European Context”. Studia UBB Sociologia. 58(2): 5-23.

Vincze, E. and I.-E. Hossu (2014) Marginalizarea socio-teritorială a comunităților de romi din România. Studii de caz în județele Alba,
Arad, Călărași, Dolj și Iași. Cluj: EFES. Accesible here: romi-Romania_2014.pdf>.

Wacquant, L. (2012) Three Steps to a Historical Anthropology of Actually Existing Neoliberalism. Social Anthropology/Anthropologie
Sociale. 20.1: 66–79.
How to Cite
VINCZE, Eniko. Adverse Incorporation of the Roma and the Formation of Capitalism in Romania. Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics, [S.l.], v. 1, n. 4, dec. 2015. ISSN 2416-089X. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 17 oct. 2017. doi: